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2021年自考英语二教材核心知识点

2021年自考英语二教材核心知识点

英语的复习需要平时做好积累,每天练习,每天进步一点。学好自考英语就要一步一步来,从词汇、语法到句型、作文,把基础打牢,往后学习会比较轻松。词汇英语学习的基础,是每天都需要更新记忆的。

TextA What Is a Decision?

课文精讲

Para.1

A decision is a choice made from among alternative courses of action that are available. The purpose of making a decision is to establish and achieve organizational goals and objectives. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists,goals or objectives are wrong,or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.

1.made from among alternative courses of action.是过去分词短语作定语。

courses of action行动方针that are available是定语从句,修饰概念短语“行动方针”。

2.The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists, goals or objectives are wrong, or something is standing in the way of accomplishing them.

此句是由that引导的表语从句,表语从句由a problem exist;goals of objectives are wrong及something is standing in the way of accomplishing them三个并列句构成。

The reason for … is that是一个常用的句子。例:The reason for canceling the travel is that they lack of money. 取消旅行的原因是他们手头缺钱。

The reason why … 是另外一个常用的句子。例:There are 3 reasons why they are unwilling to discuss insurance .他们不愿意谈论保险的原因有三个。

Para.2

Thus the decision-making process is fundamental to management. Almost everything a manager does involves decisions,indeed,some suggest that the management process is decision making. Although managers cannot predict the future, many of their decisions require that they consider possible future events. Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance, but since uncertainty is always there,risk accompanies decisions. Sometimes the consequences of a poor decision are slight;at other times they are serious.

3.a manager does是省略that的定语从句,修饰先行词everything

当先行词为everything, something, anything, nothing等不定代词时,定语从句引导词不可用which, 此句的后半部分some suggest that …… 是宾语从句。

4.although conj.“虽然,尽管”引导让步状语从句

例如:Although my car is very old,it still runs very well .

虽然我的汽车很旧,但是仍然跑得很好。

require vt. 要求,需要后边由that引导一个宾语从句。

5.Often managers must make a best guess at what the future will be and try to leave as little as possible to chance,but since uncertainty is always there, risk accompanies decisions.

make a best guess at 作出最佳猜测,at 表示动作或行为的方向和目标,如:look at (看) ,aim at (瞄准,目的是),throw (a stone) at (向…掷石头),shoot at (射击),laugh at (嘲笑)

本句中what the future will be 是一个介词宾语从句,(作介词at 的宾语);

to leave sth. to chance “凭运气,听任命运的安排,听其自然发展”

“as + 形容词(或副词)+ as possible”意思是“尽可能地…; 尽量”。

as little as possible 尽可能少

I tried to be as friendly as possible. 我尽量地表示友好。

Come as quickly as possible. 尽快来。

sometimes … at other times 有时… ,而有时则 …

a poor decision 一个不良决策

Para.3

Choice is the opportunity to select among alternatives. If there is no choice, there is no decision to be made. Decision making is the process of choosing, and many decisions have a broad range of choice. For example, a student may be able to choose among a number of different courses in order to implement the decision to obtain a college degree. For managers,every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like. These constraints exist at all levels of the organization.

1.“选择”三个词的区别:

alternative adj.两者或多于两者选一个,供选择的,n.替代物

choice 选自己喜欢的,挑出,选出

select 选出最好的,筛选、精选

2.由 if 引导的条件状语从句, 主句中的不定式被动态 to be made作定语, 修饰decision

3.range n. 范围 a broad range of choice 一个很广的选择范围

For managers,every decision has constraints based on policies, procedures, laws, precedents, and the like.

1.be based on 表示“建立在…基础上;本句中based on 是一个过去分词作定语修饰constraints。

例:The book is based on a true story. 这本书是以一个真实的故事为依据的。

He was the first to draw a map that was based on all available knowledge, rather than guess or imagination. 他第一个画出以当时所有的知识为基础的地图,而不是基于猜测和想象。

2.and the like 意思是“等等 (之类的东西)”。

例:He studied painting, music, English and the like. 他学习了绘画、音乐、英语等等。

Para.4

Alternatives are the possible courses of action from which choices can be made. If there are no alternatives, there is no choice and, therefore, no decision. If no alternatives are seen, often it means that a thorough job of examining the problems has not been done. For example,managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion;this is their way of simplifying complex problems. But the tendency to simplify blinds them to other alternatives.

1.from which 引导定语从句,修饰 courses of action 行动方针

2.a thorough job of examining 一个彻底的考察工作

a thorough job是主语,of examining the problems 修饰job,has not been done是句子的谓语。

thorough a. 彻底的

through prep. 通过,穿过

though conj. 虽然,尽管 ( 同although )

thought n. 思想

For example,managers sometimes treat problems in an either/or fashion

3.either /or 意思是“非此即彼;二者择一”。

例:We fight, or we don’t —— it’s an either/or decision.

我们战斗或不战斗-这是二者择一的决定。

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